Generally, the mountainous areas surrounding Konya, consisting mostly of plateaus, can be initiated in the south with the Taurus Mountains. In the north, there are the Bozdağlar Mountains, while the Sultan Mountains, Erenler Mountain, Alacadağ, Ali Mountain, Küpe Mountain, Eğriburun, and Karaçal Mountains are located in the west. Bozdağ, situated 50 km from the city center, and the nearby Loras Mountain and Takkeli Mountains are significant mountainous regions.
Due to being a closed basin, there are not many significant rivers in the area. Among them are the Çarşamba, İvriz, İnsu, Divle, Uluçay, Balkı Takke, and Argıthanı rivers. The Köprü, Beşgöz, Büyük, Gökpınar, Hacı Musa, and Tuzla streams provide benefits to their respective regions. As one approaches the Taşeli Plateau in the south, the Adıyan and Göksu rivers stand out not only for their climate and surface changes but also for their high flow rates.
Despite the retreat of the inland sea, there are numerous lakes of varying sizes remaining in the geography. Among them are Ilgın (Çavuşçu), Akşehir, Beyşehir, Tuz, Suğla, Ak, Hotamış, Acı, Tersakan, Çıralı, Kulu, and Obruk Lakes. In addition to these natural tectonic lakes, there are also those created to prevent flooding and for irrigation purposes. The Apa, Altınapa, Ayrancı, May, and Sille dams have been built for these purposes. It is believed that there used to be a lake formed by rainfall waters, stretching from the northwest to the northeast of Konya, which existed until the 17th century.
Approximately 38% of the land in Konya province consists of plains. The extensive plains that occupy the province's territory have emerged as a result of the drying up of the ancient Lake Konya, taking on its present form. The alluvial deposits stored on the lakebed have created fertile ground suitable for agriculture in these areas. Besides the largest plain, Konya Plain, there are other plains in the region, such as Ereğli, Hotamış, Karapınar, Cihanbeyli, Altınekin, Kulu, Ilgın, Seydişehir, and Beyşehir plains.
Konya is a province that experiences different climatic characteristics due to its geographical size and location. The southern parts of the province are influenced by the Mediterranean climate, while a continental climate prevails throughout the province. However, in the highlands of the southern Toros Mountains, harsh continental climate features can be observed.
Konya province generally harbors Irano-Turanian floristic species and many endemic species. The predominant vegetation in Konya is steppe (grassland). However, in mountainous areas with higher elevations and increased rainfall, different forest formations can be observed.